Thursday, July 22, 2004

Foreign Policy In Focus Special Report: Paying the Price: Military Mistakes

Foreign Policy In Focus Special Report: Paying the Price: The Mounting Costs of the Iraq War: "Military Mistakes: A number of former military officials have criticized the war, including retired Marine General Anthony Zinni, former commander of the U.S. Central Command, who has charged that by manufacturing a false rationale for war, abandoning traditional allies, propping up and trusting Iraqi exiles, and failing to plan for post-war Iraq, the Bush Administration made the United States less secure. "

SignOnSanDiego.com > In Iraq -- Questions over al-Qaeda connections to Iran and Iraq remain murky

SignOnSanDiego.com > In Iraq -- Questions over al-Qaeda connections to Iran and Iraq remain murky: "Questions over al-Qaeda connections to Iran and Iraq remain murky

WASHINGTON – The Sept. 11 commission's report touches on – but won't put an end to – questions about whether al-Qaeda has had ties with Iran and Iraq, two countries President Bush branded as part of an "axis of evil."
The report released Thursday outlines details about contacts between Iraq and al-Qaeda, noting that Osama bin Laden began exploring a possible alliance in the early 1990s. For example, it says an Iraqi delegation traveled to Afghanistan in July 1998 to meet with the ruling Taliban and with bin Laden.

However, the report says, Saddam never had an Islamist agenda, and bin Laden had been sponsoring anti-Saddam Islamists in Iraqi Kurdistan. A collaborative relationship was never developed, the report found.

Bin Laden's alleged relationship with Iraq has been the subject of intense political debate, with critics saying Bush exaggerated the links to justify the U.S. invasion. Bush, and especially Vice President Dick Cheney, insist those links were real and dangerous.

Critics also say Bush isn't paying enough attention to Iran, which is suspected of developing a nuclear program. The commission said intelligence points to contacts between Iranian security officials and senior al-Qaeda figures after bin Laden's return to Afghanistan. It also found the conservative Muslim state allowed eight to 10 of the Sept. 11 hijackers to pass through Iran on their way from Afghanistan and other countries, without stamping their passports.

Still, the report said, "We have found no evidence that Iran ... was aware of the planning for what later became the 9/11 attack. At the time of their travel through Iran, the al-Qaeda operatives themselves were probably not aware of the specific details of their future operation."

"We believe this topic requires further investigation by the U.S. government," the report found.

Bush called Iran and Iraq members of an "axis of evil," along with North Korea, in his State of the Union address in January 2002."

AdventureDivas: Zahra Rahnavard

AdventureDivas: Zahra Rahnavard: "Dr. Zahra Rhanavard is Chancellor of Az-Zahra University (Iran’s only all-women higher-ed institution), a presidential advisor, author of 15 books — more on the way — activist, politico and, oh yeah, accomplished sculptor, mother of three daughters and wife of former prime minister Hossein Mousavi.

She’s proud of the strides made by Prez Khatami’s reform government, but still sees plenty of opportunity for more progress.

"Twenty-three years after the revolution, we see that 60 percent of university admissions are women and this is a great change," she says. "But I am not yet personally satisfied, and believe that women need to strive harder to gain more liberties, equality, employment and high managerial positions and a presence in the Cabinet."

Similarly, she’s devoted to Islam, but she believes Iran’s lasting success as an Islamic nation hinges on giving people the freedom to make that choice. "Religion can only be in harmony with democracy when we accept that it rises from the heart of the people…" she says. "The important thing is that governments leave people free in choosing religion at their own will."

She encourages students at her university to express that freedom by picking their own style and color hejabs. "There should be no "must" to it besides the fact that it "must" be self-chosen and not forced."

She explores this idea of freedom within a set of beliefs in her book The Message of the Hejab of the Islamic Women, one of two she penned and published illegally while living in the U.S.

From the Interview

"Because of my artistic character I can approach politics in a more poetic and free way."

"An Islamic woman's hejab has a message to it — a message of freedom, thought, wisdom and of course, faith…"

"I think that the West's understanding of hejab has not been correct and I invite them to come to Iran and see for themselves how Iranian women are participating in everything and progressing and have freedom."

"When the youth attend Mr. Khatami's speeches, they clap, whistle & cheer freely, but in the end they raise their hands to God and pray. They pray because they have been able to clap and whistle freely."

"The atmosphere in our family is very complex — art, religion, politics, sports and happiness co-exist."

"We have great women movie directors at an international level. In the world of science, we have great women professors. We have women managing high positions. So this shows that women are ahead and the laws and regulations must run a marathon to catch up with them.""

Al-Zahra University head asks for Aghajari's unconditional freedom

Karroubi thanks leader for ordering revision of Aghajari's case:

"Al-Zahra University head asks for Aghajari's unconditional freedom

Tehran, Nov 17, IRNA -- Head of Tehran's Al-Zahra University here on Saturday asked the country's judiciary to free the outspoken war veteran university Professor Seyed Hashem Aghajari.

In a communique issued by Dr. Zahra Rahnavard, a copy of which was faxed to IRNA, we read, "Dr. Aghajari's lecture in Hamedan can by no means be interpreted as insulting against the Prophet of Islam (PBUH), or even the Islamic sanctities."

Rahnavard has further emphasized, "thoughts need to be criticized, analyzed, and debated, while deviating them and treating them harshly, such as sentencing those who express them to prison terms, or death, is the most inappropriate possible way to deal with them."

She added, "Aghajari is a man whose youth was passed devotedly at the service of defending Islam, liberties, and exalted human values."

Dr. Rahnavard emphasized, "among the men and women of letters and sciences in Iran, no one has slightest doubt about the sincerity and devotion of Professor Aghajari in his devoted defense of Islamic values and humanity."

The university professor said, "although there are points to be criticized in his lecture, and I do not agree with him on certain points, but it is most surprising for me to see how Aghajari's remarks are so easily deviated from his intended purposes, how naively and unscientifically they are criticized, and how contrary to the truth, his devoted defense of the infallible Imams (AS) is being introduced to the society as 'insulting the Prophet'!"

She adds, "All such injustice is done in the name of defending the religion and in efforts aimed at justifying a totally baseless verdict."

Meanwhile, the Board of Trustees of the Al-Zahra University announced in a separate letter issued on Saturday that their colleague, Fatemeh Beygomzadeh who had on Wednesday approved of the death sentence against Professor Aghajari has merely announced her personal viewpoint, and had no right to speak on the behalf of the rest of the professors who are fully opposed to the verdict.

A court in Hamedan has sentenced university professor Hashem Aghajari to death for allegedly insulting Prophet Mohammad. The local court has further sentenced Aghajari to exile in desert cities of Tabas, Zabol and Gonabad and banned him from teaching for 10 years.

Speaking at a memorial service to commemorate prominent Iranian intellectual, late Dr. Ali Shariati in Hamedan, Dr. Aghajari had criticized the Islamic principle of emulation (Taqlid) from religious leaders, arguing that the people are not monkeys to emulate.

Aghajari who stirred up a row after calling for religious reforms in Iran was summoned to appear before court for alleged insults to the Islamic sanctities soon after his controversial speech.

Aghajari's remarks triggered an outrage among many hardliners who called on the judiciary to take action against him who is meanwhile a prominent member of the Islamic Revolution's Mojahedin Organization (IRMO).

The death sentence issued against the university professor, too, has outraged the university students across Iran, who have been staging strike after strike in protest against the verdict.

President Khatami on his part condemned the verdict late last week, saying it cannot be carried out, at any rate.

The majority of Iranian parliament members, too, have seriously condemned the verdict, and Parliament Speaker Mehdi Karroubi on Saturday called the death penalty against him "a shame for the country's judiciary system.

Also two of Hamedan Constituency MPs presented their letters of resignation to show their objection to the verdict issued by their constituency's court."

Zahra Rahnavard: Beauty of Concealment and Concealment of Beauty

Beauty of Concealment and Concealment of Beauty: "Beauty Of Concealment And Concealment Of Beauty

Address by Sister Zahra Rahnavard at the Seminar for Studying Hejab. The Seminar for Studying Hejab was held on Sunday, 16th Dey 1364 (5th January 1986) at Farhang Hall. It was attended by some Members of the Majlis (Iranian Parliament), experts and officials of the Educational Affairs Section, Sector 11, Department of Education, Tehran. At this Seminar Sister Zahra Rahnavard gave a speech on "Zeebaiye Hejab va Hejabe Zibayi" (Beauty of Concealment and Concealment of Beauty). In view of the unique views, beautiful approach and deep study of the problem, full text of the address is given below.

Hejab is like a scenery, a panorama or a garden, a garden full of fruits of different colours. You can select anyone of the thousands of rooms with thousands of windows, and from its frame look at the garden, stretch your hand and pick off a fruit. You can pick off the entire garden at one and the same time like a single fruit, satisfy with its flavour your heart and soul, and make the garden, the hejab, a solace for your (disturbed) inner self. Of all the myriad windows through which one can look into the garden, let us have a look at Hejab through the window of beauty, a deep window, a window made of the wood of Sidra (the Lote Tree in the Seventh Heaven) with the scent of eternal memories, a latticed window with variegated glass, illumining your soul with multicolour lustre, a window of beauty of age-long human civilization, a window of centuries old human presence on the earth, or even older, a window dating back to the very age of creation or existence itself, a window of beauty!

The garden and the window, the concealment and the beauty often come close to merge in each other, and sometimes withdraw from each other.

Innumerable mysterious and esoteric windows open before this garden. So why should we study Hejab (or concealment) from the angle of beauty? ...Really, why?

For example, we can look at Hejab through the window of Imperialism, and sit down and analyze it. Due to the strategic importance and the immense mineral resources, our dear motherland has ever been subjected to invasion by the super-criminals who have always been interested in getting hold of this politico-geographically sensitive area and through the most intricate conspiracies for eroding our Islamic identity have endeavoured to deprive our nation of all the vestiges of self-defence. Fifty years ago it was on the 17th Dey (7 January) that, in servile obedience to the orders of the British and Americans, Reza Khan the accursed, ordered the abolition of hejab for women in Iran. In fact, he pulled down the national flag which was a symbol of independence and honour of Iran, and this served as a prologue to the future tragic drama of the loss of identity and the encroachment of foreign culture on the country.

We may look at the hejab from the window of economy, and then construe the abolition of hejab as an Imperialist plot for the inflow of the putrefied surplus products of the Western Capitalist countries like the readymade garments, cosmetics and even the attractive bodies of women for the publicity of the surplus commodities manufactured in their factories.

We may look at the abolition of hejab from the angle of the Imperialist morality which throws women before the eyes of the young as something pretty, snatching from them their senses and reason so that, subsequent to the loss of the sensible minds and firm resolution of the youth, the imperialists could plunder the natural wealth and resources of our country.

We may also look at the abolition of hejab from the cultural strategy of Imperialism, and then find the woman exploited as a stronghold of the western cultural domination and Occidentosis, and through the agency of "la belle dame" the Imperialists have not only bombarded our religious and national bases, but have even manouvred the complete devastation and annihilation of the sublime values like the pious feelings of love and affection, honour, dignity and sacrifice.

Today, however, we are not going to took through any of these windows. Beauty in a psychological perspective and in direct relation with hejab has kept so many persons mentally and psychologically occupied persons who, in Iran or elsewhere, are connected with this concealment or have a problem with' its content or form.

The addressee of this discourse is not a lady who is a principal, teacher, official, worker, doctor, specialist, housewife, or a school or college student. The addressees are rather the pious souls of all the women of the country striving for the elevation of the women's position.

I firmly believe that they are all noble persons, possessing gentle souls and have drunk deep from the pure spring of "the Eternal Being", and in this material world are waiting to receive the illuminating radiance of Truth.

They are noble, modest and peerless, except, indeed, a very small group of those women politically attached with the former regime who, by their heart and deeds, are still linked with the Western political and economic imperialism and receive their guidance and propaganda instructions from the foreign radios and centres of crime like CIA and MOSSAD in order to pollute and corrupt our Islamic society with full knowledge and intention.

Such elements form hardly one per cent of the aggregate in our society. I sit beside the clean souls of women, while I am fully confident that once the necessary economic reforms, so eagerly awaited by all of us, are introduced, most of the cultural losses of deviation including the issues relating to hejab and the relevant excesses and shortcomings on the subject shall also be restrained. Let us go back to "the frame of beauty".

Today most of the young women and girls, who have adopted hejab in toto and have been completely enamoured by it, have reached the truth that concealment in entirety is beautiful. What kind of beauty is this?

On the other hand, those who have adopted hejab halfheartedly, or have tolerated it under duress, in spite of possessing clean and spotless frames, try to conceal their beauty by myriad forms, fashions, hues and dyes and cosmetics, as they feel that hejab shall bring down the standard of their beauty. What a strange meaning of beauty!.

What is beauty? Where is its realm? But, O Woman, the character of the society is strangeness. The society itself breeds concealment. What type of concealment? In your own environment. your own society, there are innumerable curtains, which have been drawn on the beauty of your being. Why don't you see these curtains? Who are you?

In the society, you adapt yourself according to the judgements of the society. With in your work environs, you accept the behaviour, the type of dress, the conditions of concealment prevalent in your environment. Throughout your life, each place, every moment, each incident, every event throws a new curtain on your personality the curtain of class, the curtain of shape, the curtain of status, the curtain of reputation and the curtain of respectability. But who are you? What are you? The countless curtains lead you to the loss of your identity your own being.

After all we are not like the Marxists who believe that man's identity is nothing but what is determined by the economic class to which he belongs. On the contrary, we believe that every person is "something", is a reality in himself, greater than what is granted by the society, history, class, relations or connections. The subject of self-alienation which is propounded in connection with hejab has also been alluded to in the various ideologies. For example, a Marxist believes that the exploitation and the presence of the worker in the Capitalist production within an industrialized society which takes place through profiteering have led to the worker's self-estrangement. This is an economic interpretation of self-alienation.

Existentialism explains self-alienation in a different way. According to it the presence of man as a sole voluntary, conscious being in an inert, unconscious world and also in a society where the system and its conventions are quite foreign to his internal inclinations, gives birth to self-estrangement.

According to the explanation forwarded at this point by us, a woman in. all other systems, in whatever conditions and environs, wraps her real beauty into the curtains of a variety of relations and connections. The Islamic hejab, in our connotation, is by itself a source of drawing all these curtains aside and providing her the possibility of uniting with the real beauty of her being and rediscovering her own self. This social harmony proves to be an introduction through close affinity and sincerity to her real self for the attainment of the sublime origin and supreme source of her own self or Allah, and this is the gnostic unity.

Man has not a mere economic and historic nature. These are mere curtains, intertwined, curtains over a pure and clean beauty of being. All the social positions are mere curtains drawn over the real beauty of human essence. There is inside yourself a being which, in all-earnest and anxiety, expects that you will discover it, will be sincere to it, will come to its rescue, will be in unison with it, will be all one with it, will hold it and it will hold you, so that you may return to your original source. But you have kept distance from it through innumerable curtains, have completely estranged yourself from it and have left it alone. Or perhaps, you have missed it. The entire beauty of concealment lies here. As soon as you own it, all the false identities of probability shall be gone, and your mundane status, pomp and show and material acquisitions shall disappear. You will give up the symbol of your individualism, and will become like all the others, like me, like him, like all of us, a worker, an official, a teacher, a doctor or a student. You will give up all the ostentatious distinctions and will be able to reach the estranged, real self, the self having a sublime and beautiful origin, a divine origin, and a manifestation of the divinity of God, God, who is Beautiful. In other words, now that you have attained unity at the level of the society, you may also reach unity at the level of existence.

Like the leaf of a tree, a spring, mountain, or a flower in a blowing wind or the flight of a bird, you step into the unique society of existence where all are occupied in His obeisance and prostration in His adoration. Isn't such a concealment really beautiful even more beautiful than the one you may ever run after the one which you may decorate with hues and colours in order to give yourself a prettier look but which, in fact, may drown you into you, into your own individualism, take you away from the real Beauty and would prove to be a curtain between you and Beauty .

On the one hand, beauty, the physical beauty, the visual beauty of the stature and outward appearance is itself an obstruction. The body is a curtain, (as the poet says)

"The dust of my body becomes an obstruction for the face of my soul. How happy will be the moment when I shall draw this curtain aside from the face"

The Western Renaissance was the revival of the Greek values that attached utmost importance to the value of matter and body. In their belief beauty was virtue. Thus every beautiful person was virtuous and popular. Venus, the goddess of Love and Beauty and Helen, the famous demigoddess of Troy, both were at the same time heroines of corruption, debauchery and perfidy, but how strange that they were worshipped by the Western Imperialist people whose values take roots from the Greek civilization. These people always endeavoured to prove everywhere, particularly in their colonies, that physical beauty is the foundation of virtue. It is the body where lie beauty and virtue. As it is so, it must be exposed to the public eyes and judgement. The whole image of a woman in an Imperialist regime suffering from a cultural Imperialism is that of a beautiful being, and not the image of a mother or a source of an epic or great sacrifice. Thank God, our society has succeeded in giving birth to such great values. (Elsewhere) the idea of physical beauty is so strong that woman is also governed by it, and she finds satisfaction with herself only when she finds herself beautiful and her beauty a subject of public judgement.

This image of woman, a beautiful woman, also takes its roots as an established value in the minds of men, to the extent that even at the time of making the most important decision (in life), namely, marriage they are after finding a spouse possessing such physical qualities.

The demand of the society from a woman, the demand of a woman from herself and the demand of man from a woman all revolve round the physical beauty. But the real beauty lies in the moment the society, man and woman herself should demand from woman the beauty of the soul and the spirit and the human qualities and talents. The body which is destined to decay, to be mingled with the dust and produce (and be eaten by) worms, even at the pinnacle of its beauty is but an obstruction in the way to real beauty. The beauty of concealment, therefore, lies in the elimination of the physical values in order to revive the values of the real self of a woman in the mind of the society of man and woman."

womeniniran: Dr. Rahnavard defends Nobel Prize Winner Ms. Ebadi

womeniniran: "December 3, 2003

Shirin Ebadi, the 2003 Noble Peace Prize Laureate, who was scheduled to speak at Al Zahra University, was assaulted along with his entourage. The shouting of her opponents and supporters also interrupted the lecture in the university amphitheater.

In the attack against Ebadi, a group of women beat her and as a result her lecture was cancelled. Ms. Ebadi is due to receive her prize from the Noble Peace Committee next week (December 10) in Oslo, Norway.

''At a time communist supporters accuse me of defending Islam, some in the state universities consider me to be a pagan and attack me as well," she said after the attack incident. "It is not clear when communists have such impression of me, I am accused of being an infidel inside the country!â€‌ She was referring to a demonstration in Europe by Iranian communist sympathizers who claimed she was a puppet of the Islamic regime in Iran.

Following the blockage of Ms. Ebadi’s lecture and the convulsion that followed, the organizers of the program led her inside the University premises to protect her from attacks by her opponents.

"Shirin Get Lost," "Dissenter’s Place Is Not in Al Zahra" and "Shimon Perez, Yitzhak Rabin, Begin, and Shirin Ebadi" were some of the slogans shouted or written on posters by the opponents. This group also displayed Ebadi's picture without her Islamic hijab while she was in Europe.

Ms. Ebadi’s supporters also declared their support by shouting "Ebadi, Ebadi, We Support You," "Iran’s Lady of Peace: Support, Support" and "Students, Students, We Thank You."

After this incident, Dr. Zahra Rahnavard, Chancellor of Al Zahra University, declared that if those responsible for attacking Ms. Ebadi were not prosecuted, she would resign from her post. "Critics of Ms. Ebadi showed that they are incapable of thinking and reasoning, and that they only know the way of violence. The people who attacked Ms. Ebadi were but a few. It is conceivable that they were either from another institution or were not even students."

"While I have always declared that in Al Zahra University, everyone is free to express opinions and all should be reasonable and creative, some people still act in such [violent] manners. The presence of Ms. Ebadi as an international figure can be a credit to Muslim women. Did she earn a prize for defending violence or war-mongering or defending the enemy?"

Dr. Rahnavard added that Ms. Ebadi earned the Noble Peace Prize because of her defending the rights of women and children. We do not care what the motivation of the Committee was in giving her the prize, but we know that the defense of justice and freedom is the message of Quran and Islam.

Based on this report, the attack incident in Al Zahra University was subdued by the intervention of the Municipal Police who were called in to the scene by Dr. Rahnavard."

1998 - Zahra Rahnavard named university chancellor in Tehran

Zahra Rahnavard named university chancellor in Tehran: "9-23-1998 - Iranian woman named university chancellor in post-revolution first

TEHRAN, Sept 23 (AFP) - A woman has been appointed chancellor of a university in Iran for the first time since the 1979 Islamic revolution,
the official IRNA news agency reported Wednesday.

Zahra Rahnavard started work Wednesday at Tehran's al-Zahra university, which accepts only female students.

Rahnavard, the wife of former prime minister Mir-Hossein Mussavi, is a writer and has been teaching art and political science courses in
several universities. She holds a masters degree in arts and a doctorate in political science and has published 15 books.

The Minister of Higher Education, Mostafa Moin, said in a speech inducting Rahnavard as a chancellor that the number of female professors had increased from 13.6 percent in 1977 to 17.7 percent now."

1991 - Biographies of ten presidential hopefuls of Iran

Biographies of ten presidential hopefuls of Iran: "Payvand's Iran News ...

Biographies of ten presidential hopefuls of Iran

Tehran, May 17, IRNA -- The Guardians Council (GC) annouced the names of ten out of 814 candidates as the eligible hopefuls for competing on June 8 Presidential Elections.
In alphabetical order the hopefuls' biographies are as follows:

1. Fallahian, Ali
Date of birth : 1949
Place of birth: Najafabad, Isfahan Province
Theolgical degree: graduate of Qom's Haqqani School of Theology
Previous occupations: top judge of Abadan, Khouzestan Province; head of Housing Foundation of Abadan; commander of the Revolutionary Committee of Khouzestan war-stricken region during the war with Iraq; top judge of Khorassan Province; commander in chief of the Committees of Islamic Revolution; deputy Revolutionary Courts prosecutor general; Special Clerics Court's preosecutor general; deputy intelligence minister; intelligence minster during ex-president Hashemi's tenure; President of Imam Baqer (AS) University; Leadership Experts Assembly MP from Khuzesatn Province.

2. Ghafourifard, Hassan
Date of birth : 1943
Place of birth: Tehran
Previous occupations: Founder of PhD Faculty for electronics engineering at Amir Kabir Technical University; founder and head of PhD Faculty for nuclear technology at Amir Kabir University; Head of the College of Architecture, affiliated to the University of Amir Kabir; governor general of Khorassan Province; MP from Mashhad Constituancy; power minister; head of the National Olympics Committee; research deputy of ex-president Rafsanjani; MP from Tehran Constituency and meber of the 5th parliament's presiding board; head of the auditing team and special inspector of the High Council for Cultural Revolution; head of the Association of Electrical Engineers; founder and Secretary General of the Islamic Association of Iranian Engineers and the Islamic Associaltion of University Professors.

3. Hashemitaba, Seyed Mostafa
Date of birth : 1956
Place of Birth: Tehran
University degrees: MA in textile engineering from Amir Kabir University; system analysis degree for Industrial Management Organization
Previous occupations: production manager at IRIB, minister of industries, head of the board of directors of Industrial Development Organization, member of the board of directors of the Bank of Mines and Industries, head of the National Olympics Committee of the Islamic Republic of Iran, deputy prime minister and head of the headquarters for execution of the infrastructure revolutionary projects, head of the Exports Promotion Center, deputy presidnt and head of the Physical Training Organization, member of the national Olympic Committee

4. Jasbi, Abdollah
Date of birth : 1944
Place of birth: Tehran
University degree: production and technology manger from Stone University, England
Previous occupations: deputy Secretary General of the closed Islamic Republic of Iran Political Party, deputy executive affairs Secretary General of the siad party, deputy prime minister (Rajaie) in projects and programming affairs, deputy prime minister and secretary general of the country's employment organization (in Martyr Bahonar and Ayatollah Mahdavi Kani's cabinets), deputy prime minister in work force rehabilitation projects (in Mir Hossein Mousavi's cabinet), head of a commission at the Headquarters for Cultural Revolution, president of the Islamic Open University, member of the High Council for Cultural Revolution,

Cultural works: a number of books and a few scientific articles, published in Perian and English languages

5. Kashani, Seyed Mahmoud
Date of birth : 1942
Place of birth: Tehran
Father's name: late grand Ayatollah Seyed Abolghasem Kashani
University degree: PhD in Law
Thological studies: highest degree in jurisprudence
Previous occupations: Associate professor at Martyr Beheshti University, lawyer, member of the presiding board of Iranian Bar Associations, head of the Iranian judiciary delegation dispatched to the International Hague Court of Justice in Iran's case with USA, presidential candidate during the 4th elections

6. Khatami, Seyed Mohammad
Date of birth : 1943
Place of birth: Ardakan, Yazd Province
University degrees: BA in philosophy from University of Isfahan, MA in education from University of Tehran,
Theological studies: priliminary level graduate and intermediate level to some extent
Previous occupations: head of Hamburg's Islamic Center in Germany, MP from Ardakan and Meybod Canstituancy at the first parliament, caretaker of Kayhan newspaper, minister of culture and Islamic Guidance (at Mir Hossein Mousavi and Hashemi Rafsanjani's cabinets), head of cultural affairs with armed forces headquarters and head of the propagations headquarters during the imposed war, advisor to president and head of the National Library of Iran, member of the High Council for Cultural Revolution, fifth president of the Islamic Republic of Iran

7. Razavi, Seyed Mansour
Date of birth : 1952
Place of birth: Isfahan
University degree: Phd in civil engineering
Previous occupations: minister (in Mir Hossein Mousavi and Hashemi Rafsanjani's cabinets), head of the Adminstrative and Employment Organization, member of the faculty of sciences at university of Tehran, member of the Tehran City Council

8. Sadr, Seyed Shahabeddin
Date of birth: 1962
Place of borth: Tehran
Father's name: Ayatollah Seyed Abdollah Sadr
University degree: medical doctor; medical physiologist, from University of Tehran
Previous occupations: professor at University of Tehran, MP from Tehran Constiuancy at the 4th and 5th parliaments, head and deputy head of the Medical and Sanitary Affairs Committee of the parliament, member of the High Council for Cultural Revolution, head of the medical doctors delegation dispatched to the hajj pilgrimage for eight consecutive years, cultural deputy health minister, head of the country's Administrative Medical Organization, current head of the Tehran' Administrative Medical Organization
Cultural works: a few books and over 20 scientific articles

9. Samkhani, Ali
Date of birth: 1955
Place of birth: Ahvaz
Previous occupations: commander of the IRGC of Ahvaz Province, commander of Khouzestan IRGC and the Eighth District forces, deputy commander of the IRGC forces, commander of the IRGC's land forces, caretaker of military aspects of the UN Resolution 598 (Iran-Iraq war ceasefire agreement), commander of the Iranian Navy, commander of the IRGC Navy, commander of the Khatamolanbia naval headquarters, minister of defense

10. Tavakkoli, Ahmad
Date of birth: 1951
Place of birth: Behshahr, Mazandaran Province
University degree: PhD in ecconomy from Notingham University, England
Previous occupations: MP from Behshahr Constituency at the first parliamnet, labor minister and speaker (of Mir Hossein Mousavi's cabinet), licence holder and managing editor of `Iran Farda' daily
Cultural works: a few books on economy."